English Typing Matter 02
Difficulty Level: 3.7 – 199 words
Because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More recently, the rise of the Internet has fostered a worldwide market for translation services and has facilitated “language localization”. Ideally, the translator must know both languages, as well as the subject that is to be translated. Flat-panel membrane keyboards are most often found on appliances like microwave ovens or photocopiers. A common design consists of three layers. The top layer has the labels printed on its front and conductive stripes printed on the back. Under this, it has a spacer layer, which holds the front and back layer apart so that they do not normally make electrical contact. The back layer has conductive stripes printed perpendicularly to those of the front layer. When placed together, the stripes form a grid. When the user pushes down at a particular position, their finger pushes the front layer down through the spacer layer to close a circuit at one of the intersections of the grid. This indicates to the computer or keyboard control processor that a particular button has been pressed.
Difficulty Level: 3.3 – 180 words
The basic technique stands in contrast to hunt and peck typing in which the typist keeps their eyes on the source copy at all times. Touch typing also involves the use of the home row method, where typists rest their wrist down, rather than lifting up and typing (which can cause carpal tunnel syndrome). To avoid this, typists should sit up tall, leaning slightly forward from the waist, place their feet flat on the floor in front of them with one foot slightly in front of the other, and keep their elbows close to their sides with forearms slanted slightly upward to the keyboard; fingers should be curved slightly and rest on the home row. A late 20th-century trend in typing, primarily used with devices with small keyboards (such as PDAs and Smartphones), is thumbing or thumb typing. This can be accomplished using one or both thumbs. Similar to desktop keyboards and input devices, if a user overuses keys that need hard presses and/or have small and unergonomic layouts, it could cause thumb tendonitis or other repetitive strain injuries. (Wikipedia)
Difficulty Level: 3.0 – 195.2 words
In one study of average computer users, the average rate for transcription was 33 words per minute, and 19 words per minute for composition. In the same study, when the group was divided into “fast”, “moderate” and “slow” groups, the average speeds were 40 wpm, 35 wpm, and 23 wpm respectively. An average professional typist reaches 50 to 80 wpm, while some positions can require 80 to 95 wpm (usually the minimum required for dispatch positions and other typing jobs), and some advanced typists work at speeds above 120 wpm. Two-finger typists, sometimes also referred to as “hunt and peck” typists, commonly reach sustained speeds of about 37 wpm for memorized text and 27 wpm when copying text, but in bursts may be able to reach speeds of 60 to 70 wpm. From the 1920s through the 1970s, typing speed (along with shorthand speed) was an important secretarial qualification and typing contests were popular and often publicized by typewriter companies as promotional tools.
Difficulty Level: 1.8 – 211 words
Two members of the 1984 class of Jefferson High School are chairing a group of 18 to look for a resort for the 20-year class reunion. A lovely place 78 miles from the city turns out to be the best. It has 254 rooms and a banquet hall to seat 378. It has been open 365 days per year since opening on May 30, 1926. They will need 450 to reserve the resort. Debbie Holmes was put in charge of buying 2,847 office machines for the entire firm. Debbie visited more than 109 companies in 35 states in 6 months. She will report to the board today in Room 2784 at 5 p.m. The board will consider her report about those 109 firms and recommend the top 2 or 3 brands to purchase. Debbie must decide before August 16. Lynn Greene said work started on the project on March 27, 2003. The 246 blueprints were mailed to the office 18 days ago. The prints had to be 100 percent accurate before they were acceptable. The project should be finished by May 31, 2025. At that time there will be 47 new condominiums, each having at least 16 rooms. The building will be 25 stories.
Difficulty Level: 2.4 – 192.4 words
When we talk about motivating others, the justification is the end result (either we want to avoid the pain or go towards pleasure) or what we want to get the person to do. How we achieve the end result, are our alternatives. As a manager, we need to understand the other person’s justification and then come up with alternatives. We may then choose the right alternative. However, in general, we choose the first or the emotionally satisfying one. Typically people stop at this level of analysis and start to act. But a good manager would think of the following also: Will the action guarantee the consequence? What about other unintended consequences? This requires a certain experience. Are we capable of doing this action? Intention and the selection of the most ideal alternative do not guarantee execution if we do not have the skills and the experience. Most motivational tactics fail because without execution capability, they are only wishful thinking.